Supplements

Taurine: Everything You Need To Know (And More)

May 26, 2017 — by Matt Theis0

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Supplements

Taurine: Everything You Need To Know (And More)

May 26, 2017 — by Matt Theis0

If you want to know everything there is to know about Taurine supplementation, including how it can benefit you, you definitely want to read this article...

Taurine is one of the most commonly used supplements in the world.  It’s found in a variety of supplements, from pre-workouts to fat-burners to those designed to support general health and longevity.

It’s been called a “wonder molecule” by some researchers who have studied it and the list of potential benefits seems to be ever-expanding.  Despite this ever increasing popularity, there remains a lack of accurate information about what Taurine is and how it can potentially benefit you.

If you’ve read my other in-depth articles on supplements such as Ashwagandha, Phosphatidylserine, and Leucine, you know I don’t cherry pick studies to prove my point.  In fact, usually when I start researching an article, I don’t have a point.  I’m simply exploring.

Once I’ve familiarized myself with the research, I choose my stance accordingly.  If you don’t let sound science guide your supplement choices, you’ll probably make the wrong ones!

In this article, we’ll answer questions like:

  • What Is Taurine?
  • Why Do People Use It?
  • What Are The Proven Benefits?
  • What Is The Clinical Dose?
  • Is It Safe?

and a whole lot more.  So if you’re ready to dive into the wonderful world of Taurine, let’s do it!

What Is Taurine?

Taurine Molecule

Taurine is a beta-amino acid which is widely distributed throughout the body.  It has been referred to as a “wonder molecule” because of the wide range of potential benefits it has for human health.

Our bodies can synthesize it from the amino acids Cysteine and Methionine, but it’s also found in some foods like:

  • Meat
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Shellfish
  • Milk

Particularly high concentrations are found in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and white blood cells (also called Leukocytes).  For that reason, much of the research into the potential benefits has  focused on these key areas of the body.

Why Do People Supplement With It?

Why Do People Supplement With Taurine

Taurine is used as a supplement for a variety of purposes.

  • Improving Insulin Sensitivity
  • Anxiety
  • Exercise Performance
  • Exercise Recovery
  • Organ Protection

Some of the alleged benefits have more research behind them than others…

What Are The Proven Benefits of taurine?

Taurine Benefits

Taurine has been investigated for a variety of health and performance benefits.  However, some of the research is still in the preliminary stages.

It’s important to separate the benefits into two categories: proven benefits and potential benefits.  Unfortunately, a lot of the potential benefits are often misrepresented as proven benefits by supplement companies.

Taurine Is A Powerful Anti-Oxidant

Taurine has long been known to possess potent antioxidant properties which are thought to underlie a fair amount of the established benefits.

Deficiency causes an increase in superoxide activity and supplementation has been shown to prevent this.

It has been shown to protect against oxidative damage in the Heart, Testes, Kidneys, and Liver.  It’s worth mentioning that most of the exercise related benefits are believed to be due to its role as an antioxidant.

The Insulin sensitizing effects are also believed to be due to antioxidant properties.  Although Taurine does have another mechanism by which it can support the health of virtually all cells in the body (it’s an Osmolyte), the antioxidant benefits have been observed in just about every major tissue in which Taurine is concentrated.

Some researchers have posited that a high dietary Taurine intake is an underlying factor of longevity in Japanese people.

Taurine Promotes Fat-Loss

In 2004, Japanese researchers at Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University found that supplementation reduced fat mass as well as parameters of lipid metabolism over the course of 7 weeks.

The subjects in this study were NOT Diabetic, but were obese.

Another study found that Taurine supplementation increased fat-oxidation with just one (acute) dose taken prior to exercise.

Several preliminary studies have demonstrated anti-obesity effects including improved Insulin sensitivity, better cholesterol, and lower circulating Triglycerides.

Overall, there is certainly enough evidence to conclude that Taurine can help facilitate fat-loss.  Of course, as with any supplement, the most likely individuals to benefit are those who are overweight or obese to begin with.

Taurine Improves Recovery From Exercise

Due to the established role of Taurine as an antioxidant, a few studies have actually looked directly at how it impact exercise recovery.

In mice, it has been shown to protect against oxidative damage and exercise-induced injury, due to it’s cellular protective properties.  But what about humans?  Something that works in mice doesn’t necessarily work in humans.  In fact, a lot of supplements are over-hyped based on rodent studies and then turn out to be useless in humans.

Well, fortunately for us, there’s been quite a few studies in humans with the aim of evaluating aspects exercise recovery.

One study found that Taurine supplementation prevented exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy, young male subjects who exercised till exhaustion.

When combined with BCAAs, Taurine has  also been shown to reduce muscle damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) resulting from exercise to a greater degree than BCAAs alone.  A similar reduction in muscle soreness was replicated in a 2014 study and again in a 2015 study as well.

If you take a step back and look at the research on exercise recovery as a whole, it’s quite clear that Taurine supplementation can prevent excessive muscle damage and muscle soreness.  This makes it worth using by just about anyone who exercises regularly.

What Are The Potential (NOT ENTIRELY PROVEN) Benefits Of Taurine?

Potential Benefits Of Taurine

We use the term “potential benefits” to refer to POSSIBLE benefits that haven’t exactly been PROVEN, but for which there exists some preliminary support.  It’s important to understand the difference between benefits that have been replicated in multiple human studies, and those that have only been demonstrated once or only in animal studies.

Many supplement companies will present animal studies as fact, but the truth is there may be significant differences between species that prevent some of these benefits from extending to humans.

Taurine May Improve Insulin Sensitivity

Taurine has long been suspected of favorably impacting blood glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.  It’s definitely effective in mice but there haven’t been many human studies to go on.

As briefly mentioned above in the antioxidant section, the benefits related to blood glucose and insulin sensitivity appear to be due to Taurines role as an antioxidant at the cellular level.

I would be doing my job, however, if I didn’t mention that at least one study has failed to find any influence on insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity in overweight human subjects.

Right now, results are definitely mixed.  Animal studies show benefits but human studies are less encouraging.  Further studies are required to see if maybe this is just a matter of dosing, or if it has more to do with physiological differences between species.

Taurine May Improve Exercise Performance

A few studies have looked specifically at how Taurine can impact exercise performance.

One study found that supplementation 2 hours prior to exercise resulted in improved running performance.  Specifically, subjects improved time trial performance by an average of 1.7%.  This may seem minor, but how many races are won by a narrow window?  A lot…

Another study, which also noted recovery benefits, found that supplementation was shown increase VO2Max (the maximum amount of oxygen an athlete can use), time to exhaustion, and maximum workload.

It’s worth mentioning, however, that one study has failed to find any sort of performance enhancement in well-trained cyclists.

The reason for the discrepancy between the 2 studies that found benefit and the lone study that failed is unknown.  It’s possible that supplementation is more beneficial for beginners, rather than trained athletes.  That’s just a theory though.  More studies are needed for sure.

Taurine May Improve Skin And Eye Health

In certain animals (like monkeys and cats), Taurine deficiency is associated with degradation of the retina and impaired vision.  While its antioxidant properties may have something to do with this, there appears to be another mechanism at work here.

Taurine is an Osmolyte which means it can regulate the amount of fluid inside the cell.  Put simply, it can draw excess water into cells which makes them stronger and less susceptible to stress.

By hydrating the retina and supporting cellular health, Taurine may be able to improve eye-health.

This same mechanism (the ability to draw water into cells) may also improve skin health and aesthetics.  Interestingly, Taurine appears to be better at protecting against UV radiation than other osmolytes (Betaine and Inositol).

Taurine May Support Healthy Testosterone

In males, Taurine is particularly concentrated in the Testes where it is believed to have a protective role.

In mice, it has been shown to prevent declining Testosterone levels due to chemical stressors like:

It has been shown to increase Testosterone levels in male rats, but human studies are lacking.  One human study has failed to find any sort of influence on Testosterone levels using a multi-ingredient supplement which contained Taurine.

Right now, it seems like Taurine probably doesn’t outright “boost” Testosterone levels, but instead has a protective role in instances when Testosterone levels would normally decline.

What’s The Clinical Dose?

Taurine Clinical Dose

The thing about ALL SUPPLEMENTS is that they’re only going to be effective if they’re dosed correctly…

The clinical dose of a supplement is the dose at which that supplement was proven effective in a clinical setting (a documented study).

When people say things like “supplements don’t work”, they’re wrong.  Under-dosed supplements don’t work.  Unfortunately, due to supplement companies trying to cut costs, most supplements are under-dosed….so they don’t work.

Taurine may be less susceptible to being under-dosed than other supplement ingredients though.  It’s cheap and virtually tasteless so some companies even use it as a filler. Still, you want to make sure you’re getting at least 1-3 grams per day.  Higher doses may be more effective, but for the majority of the benefits, 1-3g/day will do the trick.

What To Expect WITH TAURINE SUPPLEMENTATION

What To Expect With Taurine

The general health benefits of Taurine aren’t going to be necessarily noticeable, but the performance benefits will be.  Assuming you’re using a clinical dose of Taurine from a reliable, trustworthy brand, you can expect:

  • Less Muscle Soreness
  • Faster Recovery
  • Maybe Some Fat-Loss
  • Better Pumps/Hydration

Of course, there may be other benefits, but these are the ones you’ll actually notice.

Are There Any Side Effects?

Taurine is considered entirely safe, even at doses of 3g/day for many years.  High doses have also been well-tolerated in studies so it’s very unlikely that Taurine will cause any sort of health detriments at standard supplemental doses.

Due to the fact that it functions as an osmolyte, taking a higher dose of Taurine at once time could potentially make you thirstier.  This is simply because Taurine is drawing water into your cells, thereby increasing the demand for more water.  It’s nothing overwhelming, but it’s just something to keep in mind if you’re going to be giving Taurine a shot.

The Bottom Line

Taurine has a variety of benefits, some proven and some not-so proven.  Most of these benefits stem from its role as a powerful antioxidant and most of them can be acheived with doses of 1-3g/day.

Make sure you go with a clinically dosed, reliable supplement from a brand you can trust!

Have anything to share about Taurine?  Comment below…

Matt Theis

I’m Matt, Founder of Momentum Nutrition and SuppWithThat.com. I’ve spent the better part of the last decade researching and experimenting in the areas of fitness, nutrition, and supplementation, and this is where I write it all down.